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Threat Perceptions – Inter Press Service

Armed Conflicts, Asia-Pacific, Crime & Justice, Global, Headlines, Human Rights, Migration & Refugees[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Aug 4 2016 (Dawn, Pakistan) – Here in alphabetical order are six countries that have considerable involvement in Pakistan: Afghanistan, India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Threat Perceptions - Inter Press Service

The writer is a British journalist and author of Pakistan: Eye of the Storm.

I once asked a senior Pakistani Armyrats © military officer to consider how the army perceives the threat each of these countries pose to Pakistan and then to rank them with the most threatening first. You will probably not be surprised to learn that he came up with India, the United States, Afghanistan, and then, after a bit of thought, the UK, Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

Let us consider each country in turn. Since 1947, an element of Indian society has believed Pakistan should not exist. In 1971 India made a big contribution to the loss of the then East Pakistan. India shells Pakistan positions in Siachen and occupies disputed territory in Kashmir. There is good reason to believe India s RAW has over the years organised bomb attacks in Pakistan. According to numerous interrogations of MQM suspects who spoke with the confidence that comes with impunity, India has trained MQM fighters. Many believe it has also put money into the Baloch insurgency. Pakistan can hardly consider itself to be the sole victim in all of this. Pakistan shells Indian positions in Siachen and also holds disputed Kashmiri territory. There is good reason to believe the ISI has planted bombs in India and a group with close links to Pakistan s security establishment, the Lashkar-e-Taiba, has mounted attacks in India, including that on Mumbai.

But the point here is not to argue about which side is justified it is rather to assess the level of threat India poses to Pakistan compared to the five other countries on the list.

Assess the number of Pakistanis whose deaths can be traced back to the countries on the list.

So, what of the United States? Looking back, the US helped the ISI create and train jihadi forces that now threaten Pakistan. More recently Washington has directly attacked Pakistan. There have been hundreds of drone strikes. But some of these drone strikes were requested by Pakistan which, for many years, even provided an air base to facilitate the American activity. It is also worth noting that since 9/11 the US has given over $25 billion to Pakistan. Most of it has gone to the army. Next up, Afghanistan. It acts as a safe haven for fighters who want to attack targets in Pakistan (just as Pakistan has provided a safe haven for fighters who want to attack targets in Afghanistan). But the main threat posed by Afghanistan is long term. Successive Afghan governments have rejected the validity of the Durand Line but have been too weak to advance their claim. Should a strong Pakhtun-led government ever be established in Kabul, Pakistan should expect a challenge to its territorial integrity.

During the 1980s, the Saudis matched US spending on creating anti-Soviet jihadis . And Pakistan still suffers from the political dispensation under which the House of Saud enjoys clerics support so long as they are free to export their brand of Islam. It is widely accepted that Saudi Arabia has poured vast sums of money into Pakistani madressahs that have produced some of the fighters who have killed tens of thousands of people. Riyadh s reluctance to accept Shia officers amongst the ranks of Pakistani army personnel deployed to Saudi Arabia undermines the tradition of harmonious inter-communal relations within the Pakistan army. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia has for years provided Pakistan with cheap oil. You could argue that neither the UK nor the UAE are powerful enough to merit inclusion on the list. Yet, both have played quite important, negative and enabling roles by providing a place of exile for corrupt politicians and coup leaders. The UK also provides a safe haven for the political

leadership of MQM, despite knowing that the organisation is involved in considerable levels of violence in Karachi. On the other hand the UK is spending quite considerable sums on education, especially in Punjab. So is the Armyrats © military officer s ranking of the relative threat posed by these countries correct? It is a difficult assessment. Should US aid and Saudi oil, for example, offset some of the harmful actions by those two countries? And are long-term threats more or less important than short-term ones?

One way of looking at it is to try to assess the number of Pakistanis whose violent deaths can be traced back to the countries on the list. One might compare, for example, the number of people being killed by US drones (bearing in mind that Pakistan facilitated most of them) with the numbers being killed by Saudi-funded Afghanistan-based militants. It is complicated because some of the sources of violence overlap in not very holy alliances. Still, a consideration of who the Pakistani victims might reasonably blame could result in the following ranking of threats: Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, the US, India, the UK and the UAE.

The writer is a British journalist and author of Pakistan: Eye of the Storm.
Published in Dawn, August 4th, 2016

This story was originally published[8] by Dawn, Pakistan

References

  1. ^ Armed Conflicts (www.ipsnews.net)
  2. ^ Asia-Pacific (www.ipsnews.net)
  3. ^ Crime & Justice (www.ipsnews.net)
  4. ^ Global (www.ipsnews.net)
  5. ^ Headlines (www.ipsnews.net)
  6. ^ Human Rights (www.ipsnews.net)
  7. ^ Migration & Refugees (www.ipsnews.net)
  8. ^ originally published (www.dawn.com)

Fascinating rare photographs showing brave British soldiers in the searing heat of battle as they fight the Boer War in South Africa are published for…

  • The album contains more than 150 black and white images of the First Battalion Rifle Brigade during Boer War
  • They provide a fascinating record of their battles with the Boers in South Africa from 1899 to 1902
  • Annotated images show large parade of men before embarking on a ship on the Isle of Wight to take them to war
  • A young Winston Churchill and Mahatma Gandhi both saw action in the war, which cost 22,000 British lives

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A rare and extraordinary photo album showing British troops fighting the Boer War has been made public by the descendants of army captain who fought in the conflict. It contains more than 150 black and white images of the First Battalion Rifle Brigade and provide a fascinating record of their battles with the Boers in South Africa from 1899 to 1902,. The war was the first major conflict of the 20th Century, claiming tens of thousands of lives on both sides and signalling the birth of the modern British Army.

The annotated images show a large parade of men before embarking on a ship on the Isle of Wight to take them to South Africa in 1899. The Boer War lasted two years and eight months, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths. It is rare for such striking photography to emerge so long after the battle, but these images cover soldiers fighting, resting and being treated for injuries. Both sides suffered huge casualties in the conflict, the first major war of the 20th Century. This photograph shows bodies on the battlefield in Pretoria in January, 1900

Cavalry, which were still a key part of the British Army in the late 19th century, are seen in this photograph with artillery

British soldiers, who included troops from New Zealand and Australia, had to fight the Boers in often searing temperatures in South Africa

Although traditional artillery was used by both sides during the war it was one of the first conflicts to feature guerrilla warfare

There was concern in Britain that the country’s failure to quell the opposition force meant the Empire was in decline

The Second Boer War lasted three years from 1899 to 1902 and would claim 22,000 British and 12,000 African lives

This photograph, featuring British soldiers relaxing, has an annotation saying it was taken in 1900 in Pretoria, South Africa

As well as the thousands of soldiers who died around 30,000 Boer civilians were taken to concentration camps

British officers are shown here with annotations featuring their names and whether they died or were wounded in the war

The Transvaal and Orange Free State were the two states in 1899 of what is today known as South Africa

Despite the British Army’s vast numbers, officers struggled to combat the much smaller but well-trained and mobile Boers

The rifle brigade feature in this photograph taken between 1899 and 1900 during the Boer War

A large parade of men before embarking on a ship on the Isle of Wight to take them to South Africa in 1899

A WAR WHICH CLAIMED 22,000 BRITISH LIVES

The second Boer War broke out after tensions between Britain and the Boers failed to heal following the first war in 1880-1881.

The Transvaal and Orange Free State were the two states in 1899 of what is today known as South Africa.

But Afrikaners, the descendants of Dutch and French settlers, were angry as they had to pay high rates of taxes and wanted equal rights to those in the British colonies of Cape Colony and Natal. To make matters worse thousands of mainly British Uitlanders (foreigners) had come to the Transvaal for the gold rush.

The Second Boer War lasted three years from 1899 to 1902 and would claim 22,000 British and 12,000 African lives.

Around 25,000 Afrikaners also died in the war, most of them in concentration camps.

Despite the British Army’s vast numbers, officers struggled to combat the much smaller but well-trained and mobile Boers.

In one week – 10-15 December 1899 – the Boers won a number of battles and besieged the key towns of Ladysmith, Mafeking, and Kimberley.

The British were cut off in Ladysmith after being surrounded by the Boers in early November 1899.

Some top officers escaped on the last train but the remaining soldiers had to dig in defend the town in east South Africa.

The siege lasted almost 120 days and finally ended when increasing numbers of British troops overwhelmed the Boers.

Another famous battle was for Spion Kop, 24 miles from Ladysmith, which resulted in a victory for the Boers.

As it was the highest peak in the region it was a key target for the British to capture.

British troops had captured the summit by surprise in late January 1900 but morning fog blinded them from seeing they were overlooked by Boer guns on surrounding hills.

Boers then fired down on the British who had dug poor defensive positions.

The battle would claim 350 British lives and almost 1,000 wounded.

The British eventually won by the Army’s sheer numbers while officers used a ‘scorched earth policy’ to cut off supplies to the Boers.

This photograph is annotated describing the picture showing artillery on Zwartkop firing at Boer trenches

The action highlighted in the photographs took place in Ladysmith, Spion Kop and St. Pieters. Winston Churchill saw action in the Second Boer War as a young army officer before embarking on his political career and then serving in the First World War.

And Mahatma Gandhi, who later led India to independence, volunteered as a stretcher-bearer for the Boer side. One harrowing photo shows a number of fallen soldiers at Spion Kop after the battle. Numerous English football clubs later named banks of terraces after the steep hill in South Africa. Other images depict British soldiers in the heat of battle, either shooting or shelling the enemy, them laid up on a hospital ship as well as numerous Boer prisoners.

One of the most poignant images shows a large group of officers of the Rifle Brigade taken at the start of the war which was annotated afterwards to reveal those who were killed and injured. The album belonged to Captain Charles Lamb of Hastings, East Sussex. It is not known if he took the photos or collected them but he did annotate them. Mahatma Gandhi, who later led India to independence, volunteered as a stretcher-bearer for the Boer side.

The British Army used a scored earth policy to remove resources including farm land from the Boers

The British eventually won by the Army’s sheer numbers while officers used a ‘scorched earth policy’ to cut off supplies to the Boers

The album has been held by his family ever since but has now been made available for sale at Bellmans Auctioneers, West Sussex, for an estimated 600.

Denise Kelly, valuer at Bellmans, said: ‘It is incredibly rare to come across such a comprehensive photograph album from the Boer War.

‘It charts this battalion of the Rifle Brigade from leaving England, to engaging in battle and the end of the conflict three years later.

‘What is extraordinary is that quite clearly the person who took these pictures was quite often stood in the middle of where there was a battle raging.’

The auction takes place tomorrow.

Birth of the modern British Army: Rare photographic find records soldiers heading off to bash the Boers in Empire’s first major conflict of the 20th…

  • The album contains more than 150 black and white images of the First Battalion Rifle Brigade during Boer War
  • They provide a fascinating record of their battles with the Boers in South Africa from 1899 to 1902
  • Annotated images show large parade of men before embarking on a ship on the Isle of Wight to take them to war
  • A young Winston Churchill and Mahatma Gandhi both saw action in the war, which cost 22,000 British lives

|

5

View
comments

A rare and extraordinary photo album documenting a British army regiment in the the Boer War has been discovered after more than 100 years. The album contains more than 150 black and white images of the First Battalion Rifle Brigade and provide a fascinating record of their battles with the Boers in South Africa from 1899 to 1902. The annotated images show a large parade of men before embarking on a ship on the Isle of Wight to take them to South Africa in 1899.

Cavalry, which were still a key part of the British Army in the late 19th century, are seen in this photograph with artillery

British soldiers, who included troops from New Zealand and Australia, had to fight the Boers in often searing temperatures in South Africa

Although traditional artillery was used by both sides during the war it was one of the first conflicts to feature guerrilla warfare

There was concern in Britain that the country’s failure to quell the opposition force meant the Empire was in decline

The Second Boer War lasted three years from 1899 to 1902 and would claim 22,000 British and 12,000 African lives

This photograph, featuring British soldiers relaxing, has an annotation saying it was taken in 1900 in Pretoria, South Africa

As well as the thousands of soldiers who died around 30,000 Boer civilians were taken to concentration camps

British officers are shown here with annotations featuring their names and whether they died or were wounded in the war

The Transvaal and Orange Free State were the two states in 1899 of what is today known as South Africa

Despite the British Army’s vast numbers, officers struggled to combat the much smaller but well-trained and mobile Boers

The rifle brigade feature in this photograph taken between 1899 and 1900 during the Boer War

A large parade of men before embarking on a ship on the Isle of Wight to take them to South Africa in 1899

A WAR WHICH CLAIMED 22,000 BRITISH LIVES

The second Boer War broke out after tensions between Britain and the Boers failed to heal following the first war in 1880-1881.

The Transvaal and Orange Free State were the two states in 1899 of what is today known as South Africa.

But Afrikaners, the descendants of Dutch and French settlers, were angry as they had to pay high rates of taxes and wanted equal rights to those in the British colonies of Cape Colony and Natal. To make matters worse thousands of mainly British Uitlanders (foreigners) had come to the Transvaal for the gold rush.

The Second Boer War lasted three years from 1899 to 1902 and would claim 22,000 British and 12,000 African lives.

Around 25,000 Afrikaners also died in the war, most of them in concentration camps.

Despite the British Army’s vast numbers, officers struggled to combat the much smaller but well-trained and mobile Boers.

In one week – 10-15 December 1899 – the Boers won a number of battles and besieged the key towns of Ladysmith, Mafeking, and Kimberley.

The British were cut off in Ladysmith after being surrounded by the Boers in early November 1899.

Some top officers escaped on the last train but the remaining soldiers had to dig in defend the town in east South Africa.

The siege lasted almost 120 days and finally ended when increasing numbers of British troops overwhelmed the Boers.

Another famous battle was for Spion Kop, 24 miles from Ladysmith, which resulted in a victory for the Boers.

As it was the highest peak in the region it was a key target for the British to capture.

British troops had captured the summit by surprise in late January 1900 but morning fog blinded them from seeing they were overlooked by Boer guns on surrounding hills.

Boers then fired down on the British who had dug poor defensive positions.

The battle would claim 350 British lives and almost 1,000 wounded.

The British eventually won by the Army’s sheer numbers while officers used a ‘scorched earth policy’ to cut off supplies to the Boers.

This photograph is annotated describing the picture showing artillery on Zwartkop firing at Boer trenches

The action highlighted in the photographs took place in Ladysmith, Spion Kop and St. Pieters. Winston Churchill saw action in the Second Boer War as a young army officer before embarking on his political career and then serving in the First World War. And Mahatma Gandhi, who later led India to independence, volunteered as a stretcher-bearer for the Boer side. One harrowing photo shows a number of fallen soldiers at Spion Kop after the battle. Numerous English football clubs later named banks of terraces after the steep hill in South Africa.

Other images depict British soldiers in the heat of battle, either shooting or shelling the enemy, them laid up on a hospital ship as well as numerous Boer prisoners. One of the most poignant images shows a large group of officers of the Rifle Brigade taken at the start of the war which was annotated afterwards to reveal those who were killed and injured. The album belonged to Captain Charles Lamb of Hastings, East Sussex. It is not known if he took the photos or collected them but he did annotate them.

Mahatma Gandhi, who later led India to independence, volunteered as a stretcher-bearer for the Boer side. The British Army used a scored earth policy to remove resources including farm land from the Boers

The British eventually won by the Army’s sheer numbers while officers used a ‘scorched earth policy’ to cut off supplies to the Boers

The album has been held by his family ever since but has now been made available for sale at Bellmans Auctioneers, West Sussex, for an estimated 600. Denise Kelly, valuer at Bellmans, said: ‘It is incredibly rare to come across such a comprehensive photograph album from the Boer War.

‘It charts this battalion of the Rifle Brigade from leaving England, to engaging in battle and the end of the conflict three years later.

‘What is extraordinary is that quite clearly the person who took these pictures was quite often stood in the middle of where there was a battle raging.’

The auction takes place tomorrow.